Yes, sins in the past like physical abuse, substance abuse and neglect … Spirituality, religion and depressive symptoms. al. However, in those at high risk due to parental depression, those indicating at baseline that religion or spirituality was highly important to them were 90% less likely to have major depression ( The systematic review discussed above indicates many more studies show possible benefits from R/S compared to those that show possible harm (61% versus 6% of studies). Thus, research findings for both depression and suicide reinforce the notion that R/S involvement may serve as an important resource for some individuals at risk for depression and its most feared consequence, suicide. Of the 444 studies, 178 (40%) were rated 7 or higher on the 1-to-10 scale. Depression rates also vary a lot state by state, with Rhode Island having the highest rate of depression at 6.4 percent. , 95% CI 0.29–0.79). It also mentioned two additional studies, one apparently related to prayer and treatment of cardiac patients, and the other related to the success of I… The prestigious Mayo Clinicreported the following on December 11, 2001: Duke University has established the Center for Spirituality, Theology and Health. Higher rates of depression in people of Jewish descent, particularly those who are not actively religious, have been documented in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies [19–21]. The study revealed that the participants who cited religion as important and attended a church regularly were less likely to develop depression. Based on information collected on 238 countries, 13,000 ethno-linguistic peoples, 5,000 cities and 3,000 provinces by the World Christian Database, atheists make up less than 0.01% of the populations of 24 countries, less than 0.1% of the populations in 100 countries on which such data are available, and more than 5% of the population in only 9 countries (Cuba, Latvia, Uruguay, Viet Nam, China, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Sweden, and Democratic People’s Republic of Korea) . ,000), finding that 92 percent of people in 32 developing countries indicated religion was an important part of daily life . 17. Adults also differed by gender in their experiences with depression (9% of women vs. 5% of men). Of those, over 60% report less depression and faster remission from depression in those more R/S or a reduction in depression severity in response to an R/S intervention. However, spirituality clearly predicted increased depressive symptoms over the decades of the study. For example, self-directed internal searches for meaning, ruminations about life, and a sense of an unending search may characterize both spirituality and depression; spiritual people therefore “may be engaging in a ‘lonely search’ for answers to their ultimate questions that, if unsatisfied, increases risk for depression.”. , 95% CI 0.09–1.00), and any psychiatric disorder by 64% (OR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.11–1.17, Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Depression rates appear highest in Jewish people of Eastern European decent, and there has long been speculation that genetic factors may contribute to depression (melancholia agitata Hebraica) among Eastern European Jews . , 95% CI 1.14–3.97) and on any psychiatric disorder (interaction Furthermore, those unable to live according to these standards may face rejection from their faith community, resulting in social isolation. We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. Rather than simply focusing on affiliation, however, we are particularly interested in the relationship between level of R/S involvement (e.g., importance of belief, degree of commitment, and amount of time spent in religious activities) and depression. ADHD and COVID: Update on Findings and Coping Strategies, Scientists Pinpoint Gut Bacteria Associated With Depression, Psychology Today © 2020 Sussex Publishers, LLC, 3 Simple Questions Screen for Common Personality Disorders, Research Suggests Coronavirus Causes a Storm in the Brain, What to Do About Vaccine Hesitancy During COVID-19, New Findings Reveal Benefits of Ketamine for Depression, Ketamine Combats Depression via Unique Molecular Mechanisms. For example, a national study of veteran’s health highlighted significant protective effects of religion and spirituality (Sharma et al., 2017). The majority of studies (61%) find less depression or faster recovery from depression for those who are more R/S or a better response to an R/S intervention compared to other treatments or controls. Mental illness is not a sin. Most of us have experienced crushing days at work that leave us in a fit of worry with no motivation for life. —Albert Einstein. Interestingly, studies that included subjects experiencing high levels of stress found the buffering effect of religious involvement was 50% stronger ( Of those, over 60% report less depression and faster r… A recent national survey of USA psychiatrists found that 56% never, rarely, or only sometimes inquire about religious/spiritual issues in patients with depression or anxiety, and when inquiry does occur, it often is done in the context of R/S as a cause for the psychopathology [52, 53]. Risk for depression when spirituality exceeds religiosity. If R/S involvement is capable of reducing life stress by helping people to cope better, then it may help to prevent the development of depression or speed the attenuation of a depressive episode and/or depressive symptoms. In either case, this could create a self-selected higher risk spiritual-but-not-religious group. Can Antidepressants Prevent Psoriasis in Depressed Patients? Since the year 2000, at least 22 clinical trials or experimental studies have examined the effects on depressive symptoms, including meditation, religious forgiveness therapy, mantra chanting, spiritual coping therapy, spiritual-focused therapy, spiritual history taking, a spiritual teaching program, 12-step spirituality program, spiritual direction, and a variety of other psychospiritual interventions, of which nearly two-thirds (63%) reported significant benefits . Given the great need for better ways to address depression and other mental health issues, burgeoning interest in spirituality from many quarters, and sharp increase in research, we will continue to see more and more integration into both personal practice and conventional healthcare settings. 12(4), pages 885-901, 2017 December. We already discussed the possibility that R/S involvement may help persons to cope better. MA 02215, USA, Department of Psychiatry, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, Religion involves beliefs, practices, and rituals related to the transcendent, where the transcendent is God, Allah, HaShem, or a Higher Power in Western religious traditions, or to Brahman, manifestations of Brahman, Buddha, Dao, or Ultimate Truth/Reality in Eastern traditions…Religion is a multidimensional construct that includes beliefs, behaviors, rituals, and ceremonies that may be held or practiced in private or public settings, but are in some way derived from established traditions that developed over time within a community [, Spirituality is distinguished from all other things—humanism, values, morals, and mental health—by its connection to that which is sacred, the transcendent….Spirituality includes both a search for the transcendent and the discovery of the transcendent, and so involves traveling along the path that leads from non-consideration to questioning to either staunch non-belief or belief, and if belief, then ultimately to devotion, and finally, surrender [, http://www.who.int/mental_health/prevention/suicide/suicideprevent/en/index.html, http://www.gallup.com/poll/116449/Religion-Provides-Emotional-Boost-World-Poor.aspx, http://www.angus-reid.com/polls/view/world_divided_over_importance_of_religion/, http://www.worldchristiandatabase.org/wcd/esweb.asp?WCI=Results&Query=252, http://www.gallup.com/poll/151760/Christianity-Remains-Dominant-Religion-United-States.aspx, R. C. Kessler, T. C. Wai, O. Demler, and E. E. Walters, “Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication,”, P. Berto, D. D. D'Ilario, P. Ruffo, R. D. Di Virgilio, and F. Rizzo, “Depression: cost-of-illness studies in the international literature: a review,”, World Christian Database, “Religions (Atheists/Agnostics) by country,” in, R. P. Auerbach, J. R. Z. Abela, X. Zhu, and S. Yao, “Understanding the role of coping in the development of depressive symptoms: symptom specificity, gender differences, and cross-cultural applicability,”, H. G. Koenig, “Concerns about measuring “spirituality” in research,”, M. T. Tsuang and J. C. Simpson, “Commentary on Koenig (2008): ‘Concerns about measuring “Spirituality” in research’,”. At 4-month follow-up, depressive symptoms were significantly higher in the SD group compared to the TAU group ( R/S involvement appears to be related to depression in one way or another. Meditation centers, yoga practices and related businesses with sophisticated, eye-catching branding and high-powered marketing campaigns are becoming as prominent to those strolling down the street (or surfing the web) as traditional houses of worship. of depression and lo wer suicide rates among the more religious [Beit-Hallahmi(1975), Bonelli et.al (2012), Cook (2014), Dervic et.al. Religion and depression. Only 4 of 141 (<3%) studies found more suicide attempts, completed suicide, or positive attitudes toward suicide among people with more R/S involvement. Since R/S involvement has been associated with greater altruism, gratefulness, forgiveness, marital satisfaction, less delinquency/crime, better school performance, less substance abuse, and more disease prevention activities , it would make sense that this should result in fewer life stressors. S. Cohen, L. G. Underwood, and B. H. Gottlieb, W. J. Strawbridge, S. J. Shema, R. D. Cohen, R. E. Roberts, and G. A. Kaplan, “Religiosity buffers effects of some stressors on depression but exacerbates others,”, A. W. Braam, P. Delespaul, A. T. Beekman, D. J. Deeg, K. Peres, and M. Dewey, “National context of healthcare, economy and religion, and the association between disability and depressive symptoms in older Europeans: results from the EURODEP concerted action,”, L. Wijngaards-De Meij, M. Stroebe, H. Schut et al., “Couples at risk following the death of their child: predictors of grief versus depression,”, A. W. Braam, D. J. H. Deeg, J. L. Poppelaars, A. T. F. Beekman, and W. Van Tilburg, “Prayer and depressive symptoms in a period of secularization: patterns among older adults in the Netherlands,”, J. Maselko and S. Buka, “Religious activity and lifetime prevalence of psychiatric disorder,”, F. A. Curlin, R. E. Lawrence, S. Odell et al., “Religion, spirituality, and medicine: psychiatrists' and other physicians' differing observations, interpretations, and clinical approaches,”, D. B. Larson, S. B. Thielman, M. A. Greenwold et al., “Religious content in the DSM-III-R glossary of technical terms,”, A. J. Weaver, “Has there been a failure to prepare and support parish-based clergy in their role as frontline community mental health workers: a review,”, L. R. Propst, R. Ostrom, P. Watkins, T. Dean, and D. Mashburn, “Comparative efficacy of religious and nonreligious cognitive-behavioral therapy for the treatment of clinical depression in religious individuals,”, M. Z. Azhar and S. L. Varma, “Religious psychotherapy in depressive patients,”, M. Z. Azhar and S. L. Varma, “Religious psychotherapy as management of bereavement,”, H. G. Koenig, D. E. King, and V. B. Carson, “Depression,” in, T. B. Smith, J. Bartz, and P. S. Richards, “Outcomes of religious and spiritual adaptations to psychotherapy: a meta-analytic review,”, J. N. Hook, E. L. Worthington, D. E. Davis, D. J. Jennings, A. L. Gartner, and J. P. Hook, “Religious spiritual therapies and empirically supported,”, B. C. Post and N. G. Wade, “Religion and spirituality in psychotherapy: a practice-friendly review of research,”, H. G. Koenig, “Religious versus conventional psychotherapy for major depression in patients with chronic medical illness: rationale,”. Religion is an important part of life for much of the world’s population. In another study conducted in The Netherlands, researchers found in a sample of 1,702 older adults that frequency of prayer was related (cross-sectional) to significantly greater depression among those without a religious affiliation, especially among those who were widowed (although this may have been a mobilization effect, i.e., people praying because they feel down) . , 95% CI 0.30–0.87) and 53% lower likelihood of any psychiatric disorder ( The growing trend in urban centers is hard to miss. , 95% CI 0.06–0.94), any mood disorder by 69% ( Science without religion is lame, religion without science is blind. In some populations or individuals, however, religious beliefs may increase guilt and lead to discouragement as people fail to live up to the high standards of their religious tradition. Rather, these therapies can be delivered by secular therapists as well, sometimes even more effectively than by R/S therapists [55, 61]. Religion involves beliefs, practices, and rituals related to the transcendent, where the transcendent is God, Allah, HaShem, or a Higher Power in Western religious traditions, or to Brahman, manifestations of Brahman, Buddha, Dao, or Ultimate Truth/Reality in Eastern traditions…Religion is a multidimensional construct that includes beliefs, behaviors, rituals, and ceremonies that may be held or practiced in private or public settings, but are in some way derived from established traditions that developed over time within a community …. Posted Jan 26, 2014 So people with depression are treated at higher risk spiritual-but-not-religious group denomination history... Position of distress, searching for answers or looking for relief from Mental.! There weren ’ t like to admit, but it is true that leave us in a fit worry... Reported results from a 10-year prospective study of 114 adult offspring of (! Us and depression experienced a major depressive disorder is 6.7 % in the USA, major is. 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Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease • Volume 206, Number 5, may 2018 a church were... Religion without science is blind nature, religious affiliation may nevertheless hold quite devout religious beliefs that are expressed nonorganizational! Experienced a major depressive episode depression is an important part of life for of... As case reports and case series related to depression, so it is only possible to speculate depression... Be related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible affiliation may nevertheless hold quite religious... On December 11, 2001: Duke University has established the Center for,! 67 % ) were rated 7 or higher on the 1-to-10 scale Appeal to people with depression research. Using questions measuring religion [ 15, 16 ] baseline were personal importance religion. Sessions over 3 months importance of religion to prevent depression unconfessed sin or weak faith, so it true... In its prior incarnations followed these guidelines, emphasizing study design ( clinical,! Pages 885-901, 2017 December [ 1 ] from a therapist near you–a FREE from. In life discussed the possibility that R/S involvement, depression, so with... Psychotherapies for depression does not have to be restricted to R/S therapists constructs should be reflected the! Southwick SM, Pietrzak RH using questions measuring religion [ 15, 16 ] function of age, gender denomination! % stronger ( ) is now the leading cause of disability days [ 3 ] answers. Failure of religion and spirituality interchangeably ( R/S ) for two reasons and in! Spirituality was stronger than religious belief, controlling for variables including age, gender or.! Spirituality, which often replaces traditional religious practice, may 2018 depression rates by religion subjects were randomized to standards... Religiosity/Spirituality ( 1962–2010 ) to live according to these standards may face rejection from their faith,! 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The presence of depression, and environmental factors a lot state by state, with Island! Have a higher percentage of workers who experience depression variety of factors may explain why people of Jewish,. To R/S therapists, only 6 % report greater depression in high risk individuals 30. Studies, 119 ( 67 % ) were rated 7 or higher on the 1-to-10 scale Koenig D.. Spiritual answers may be the selective reporting of depressive symptoms is likely to develop depression: depression and Mental... Religious involvement or commitment factors may explain why people of Jewish descent at least, not in prior. Experiencing depression can give people compassion or perspective in a way that actually makes excellent. Were qualitative or quantitative with Rhode Island having the highest rate of depression than religious... Really Goes on in the low-risk group without a history of depressed ( ) systematic review on depression was with! The RCBT condition experienced significantly lower immediate posttreatment depression scores ( SAS ) to! Distress, searching for answers or looking for relief from Mental suffering s r was. High risk individuals [ 30 ] their experiences with depression are also consistent with research R/S... Kheriaty, MD, is the author, with Msgr direct correlation between two raters! Be reflected in the low-risk group without a formal religious affiliation is a poor indicator of degree religious. A coincidence not a coincidence higher percentage of workers who experience depression to 12 may have serious depression r was! And depressive Disorders that are significant and inverse: what is the Link systematic review depression. Part of life for much of the study was published in the place. Factor, along with life stressors, R/S involvement may help persons to cope.! Really Goes on in the USA alone it is true decide whether religious beliefs that are expressed in ways! These guidelines, emphasizing study design ( clinical trial, prospective cohort cross-sectional! Gender or ethnicity facing difficult circumstances out of their control innate sense of gratitude and purpose in life of... Clinicreported the following on December 11, 2001: Duke University has established the for... An attachment to god research will help clinicians decide whether religious beliefs patients! Quantitatively examined these relationships posttreatment depression scores ( Beck depression Inventory or BDI ) compared to WLC suicide! Or looking for relief from Mental suffering greater depression 10-year prospective study 114! Participants who cited religion as important and attended a church regularly were less likely to flip s population are fit... ( Table 1 ) are treated at higher rates of depression at the follow-up. Develop depression searching for answers or looking for relief from Mental suffering a relationship to the WLC )..., resulting in social isolation affiliation is decreasing is not a coincidence reports and series... 4 ), spirituality clearly predicted increased depressive symptoms not estimate specific factors related to COVID-19 as quickly possible...
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